Wireless sensor network has numerous applications, typically involving in monitoring, trekking, or controlling. Some specific applications include habitat monitoring, traffic monitoring, object trekking and controlling, fire detection, temperature monitoring and controlling. A wireless sensor network is spread over a region where it is meant to collect data through its sensor nodes.
Area monitoring is a common use of wireless sensor networks. In area monitoring, wireless sensor networks are deployed over a large area or a region were certain phenomenon is to be monitored. For example, large quantities of sensor nodes are deployed in the most sensitive areas especially at the border areas to detect enemy intrusion, important buildings like banks and other financial institutions to monitor the entrance of unauthorized people, and also to detect fire in the buildings. Similarly, wireless sensor nodes can be used to monitor the habitat in the area.
A large number of wireless sensor networks are deployed for detection and monitoring environmental changes in plains, forest, ocean and many others such as fire detection, flood detection, Air pollution monitoring, and land slide detection. Environmental monitoring is used in the area especially for environmental impact assessment. Environmental monitoring is primarily focused on to reduce the harmful effects on the natural environment caused by various human activities.
A solar-powered wireless sensor network was reported by Crossbow Technology Inc. (2004) to provide weather information in fields. A remote application server relayed data from the sensor network to local users via a WLAN and remote users via cellular and the internet.
Geo-referenced environmental monitoring
A wireless system to acquire, store, display and transmit real-time, geo- referenced environmental data between multiple field teams and remote locations are now available. In the systems, field teams with handheld data collection units communicated to each other or with a field station server through a WLAN.
Wireless sensor network is used in homes for home automation. Some of the examples of home automation are when fire alarm detects fire and smoke condition, then the alarm light (red) will blink and buzzer will be ON to alert the occupants. Likewise, there are many other home applications like building automation (such as light and climate control, control of doors and window shutters, security and surveillance systems. Another interesting application is Wireless sensor network (WSN) in smart homes identifying a caregiver who enters the home.
Green house monitoring
Wireless sensor networks are also used to control the temperature and humidity levels inside commercial greenhouses. When the temperature and humidity drops below specific levels, the green house managers must be notified via e-mail or cell phone text message, or host systems can trigger misting system, open vents, turn on fans, or control a wide variety of system
Machine health monitoring
Wireless sensor networks have been developed for machine condition-based maintenance as they offer significant cost savings and enable new functionalities.