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Table 1. Video Encoder Description


Block Name          Block Description                    Block Function


Pre-Proc.                Pre-Processing                         If necessary, the Pre-Proc. Block converts the input video format to YUV 4:2:0.

Video Buffer           Video Buffer                               Encoder stores the compressed data for processing. DCT                                 Discrete Cosine Transform    DCT transformation decomposes each input block into a

series of waveforms with a specific spatial frequency.

Outputs an 8x8 block of horizontal and vertical frequency coefficients.


Q                              Quantization                               Quantization block uses the psychovisual characteristics to eliminate the unimportant DCT coefficients, high frequency coefficients.


IQ                             Inverse Quantization                IQ computes the inverse quantization matrix by multiplying the quantized DCT with the quantization table.


IDCT                       Inverse Discrete Cosine


IDCT computes the original input block. Errors are expected due to quantization.


Frame Buffer         Frame Buffer                              Memory required for video processing, typically 3 frames stored.


ME                           Motion Estimation                     ME uses a scheme with fewer search locations and fewer pixels to generate motion vectors indicating the directions of the moving images.


MC                           Motion Compensation             MC block increases the compression ratio by removing the redundancies between frames.


VLC                         Variable Length Coding           Lossless VLC coding reduces the bit rate by sending shorter codes for common pairs (number of zeros and number of non-zeros) and longer codes for less common pairs.


Rate Cont.             Rate Control                              Control the bit rate by changing the quantization rules, for example using fewer bits per DCT coefficient.


Buffer                      Buffer                                           Output data buffer