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A Brief Description of a Stepper Motor

What is a stepper motor??

A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence. The motors rotation has several direct relationships to these applied input pulses. The sequence of the applied pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation. The speed of the motor shafts rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses and the length of rotation is directly related to the number of input pluses applied.




The most common stepper motors have four stator windings that are paired with a centre-tapped common.







This type of stepper motor is commonly referred to as a four-phase stepper motor

The centre tap allows a change of current direction in each of two coils when a winding is grounded, thereby resulting in a polarity change of the stator.

The stepper used here has a total of 6 leads, 4 leads representing the four stator windings, 2 commons for the centre tapped leads.

As the sequence of power is applied to each stator winding, the rotor will rotate.