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microstrip patch antennabasic principles of operation
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Basic principles of operation

The patch acts approximately as a resonant cavity (short circuit walls on top and bottom, open-circuit walls on the sides).

In a cavity, only certain modes are allowed to exist, at different resonant frequencies.

If the antenna is excited at a resonant frequency, a strong field is set up inside the cavity, and a strong current on the (bottom) surface of the patch. This produces significant radiation (a good antenna).