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An ancient methodology for different problem solution based on 16 sutra (formulae)

1 line arithmetic (mental calculation) 


  Sub Sutras:

Basic rules:

There are some basic rules which are very useful for mental calculation. The rules are given below-

  If the square root contains n digits then the number† must consist of 2n or 2n-1 digits

  But in case of pure decimals no of digits in the square is always double

  An exact square canít end in 2 ,3,7 or 8

  A complete square ending in 1 must have either 1 or 9 as the last digit

  The square can end in 4 if the square root end in 2 or 8

  i.e. the squares of complements (from 10) have the same last digit. Thus 32&72, 42&62

have the same last digit .